Slave Gynecology Experiments
Prior to the Civil War, Southern doctors often performed medical experiments on slaves. This was especially true about Dr. James Marion Sims, inventor of the speculum. His experiments weren’t just about creating new observation tools; he also tried to make surgical methods in his spare time.
Slave women under his ownership often had to undergo surgeries without anesthetic. One poor woman underwent as many as 30 different surgeries before she died.